Nine out of ten of the world’s most unequal cities in terms of income were in Africa or Latin America in 2005, and governments in these cities have attempted to close the gap between the rich and the poor with varying results. Johannesburg and Cape Town in South Africa both consistently struggle with inequality created by apartheid, and the gap is increasing due to an increase in income levels for the wealthier population. In Latin America, many cities are revamping their education programs, moving more children into schools and subsequently into the labor force. As a result, the middle class is on the rise in cities such as São Paulo, Salvador, Quito, Guayaquil and Guatemala City.
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