在亚太地区，中国吸引了最高的外国直接投资（FDI）流入，2008年，金融危机之前，达到最高值 1083亿美元。这占了亚太地区的外国直接投资的33.2％ 。劳动力成本较高将对中国产生怎样的影响？
中国仍在努力提高其在世界经济论坛的全球竞争力指数。在139 国家中，中国的全球竞争力指数在2010-2011年，排名第27位，去年同期为第29名。然而，在劳动力市场灵活性中，中国排第96位， 冗余成本为114名。在生产率的提高没有显著提高的情况下，较高的劳动力成本和工资将导致企业利润率下降
China’s labor costs
China’s economy in recent decades, rapid development thanks to the rapid development of its manufacturing as well as significant foreign direct investment (FDI). The cheap labor costs is an important factor in attracting investors. As costs continue to rise, the level of competitiveness in China pose a challenge. But along with the other advantages of growing, China is still very attractive to the investor countries.
China is one of the most attractive to investors, has always been its cheap labor costs and provide economies of scale. However, due to several factors, labor costs continue to rise. Beginning in 2008, this trend has become more apparent. 2008 the government introduced new labor laws, through the implementation of the contract, job security and minimum wage standards to comply with in order to protect the rights of workers. However, workers demanding higher wages because of inflation and other reasons. In such circumstances, the 2010 salary increases and increasing the minimum wage. The inflation caused by the purchasing power of consumers to reduce and lower disposable income. The annual inflation rate of 4.9 percent in February 2011, inflationary pressures in the 2011 record high world food prices and soaring oil prices continued to rise after the unrest of the Middle East and North Africa.
In addition, China has been troubled by lack of highly skilled workers, which contributed to the rise in wages. By the impact of a slowdown in the rural-urban migration and rural laborers find more close to home and work opportunities. As a result of the combination of these factors, the labor costs in China rise. Manufacturing average hourly wage, for example, in 2010 from $ 1.0 in 2005 to 2.4 U.S. dollars.
In the Asia-Pacific region, China has attracted the highest foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2008, before the financial crisis, reaching a maximum value of $ 108.3 billion. This accounted for 33.2 percent of foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Higher labor costs in China will produce what kind of impact?
Investors may seek alternatives to the production base in Asia, where labor costs are cheaper. Reduced foreign direct investment would affect China’s economic growth and reduce the potential for employment. In addition, China’s internal wage change may lead to enterprises in China to relocate to cheaper areas, such as the inland second-tier cities. In major cities, employment prospects will decline, and this will affect the economy of the region.
China is still trying to improve in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index. In 139 countries, China’s Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011, ranked 27, compared to 29. However, in the labor market flexibility, China ranks the first 96 redundancy costs for the 114. In case of increase in productivity did not significantly improve the high labor costs and wages will lead to decreased profit margins
In recent years to promote economic growth in the manufacturing sector may be compromised because of the lack of investment. Because of higher input costs in dealing with commodity prices rising at the same time labor costs increase. 2010, manufacturing accounted for 30.0 percent of China’s gross domestic product (GDP) since 2000, this proportion has remained relatively stable, but if other economies to take more low-cost production base, this proportion is likely to fall. Exports will be affected. In 2010, China’s exports of goods, including machinery and transport equipment accounted for 49.2%.
However, the transformation of the country’s economy may encourage higher production of high-end products to take low-cost manufacturing activity, while in other parts of Asia. Senior technicians, highly qualified staff shortages may hinder the production of high-end products in the short term. China’s labor costs are still much lower than many advanced economies.