中国劳动力成本提高

中国经济在近十年中飞速发展得益于其制造业的飞速发展以及显著的外商直接投资(FDI)。廉价的劳动力成本是吸引投资者的一个重要因素。随着成本的不断上升,对中国的竞争力水平构成挑战。但是伴随着其他优势的不断增强,中国仍旧是非常吸引投资人的国家。

中国最吸引投资者的原因之一,历来是其廉价的劳动力成本和提供规模经济的能力。然而,由于以下几个因素,劳动力成本不断上升。从2008年开始,这种趋势已变得更加明显。08年政府出台新的劳动法,通过合同的执行,工作保障和最低工资标准的遵守以保障工人的权益。然而,工人因为通货膨胀等原因也要求更高的工资。在这样的情况下,2010年开始加薪和增加最低工资。通胀造成消费者的购买力减少和可支配收入的降低。2011年2月的年度通胀率为4.9%,通胀压力在2011年创纪录的世界粮食价格,以及石油价格暴涨,中东和北非骚乱后,持续走高。

此外,中国受到高度熟练工人缺乏的困扰,这加剧了工资的上涨。也受到在农村人口向城市迁移放缓的影响以及农村劳动者找到更多离家近的工作机会。由于这些因素的组合的结果,劳动力成本在中国上升。 制造业每小时的平均工资,例如,在2010年从2005年的1.0美元至2.4美元。

在亚太地区,中国吸引了最高的外国直接投资(FDI)流入,2008年,金融危机之前,达到最高值 1083亿美元。这占了亚太地区的外国直接投资的33.2% 。劳动力成本较高将对中国产生怎样的影响?

投资者可在亚洲寻求替代品的生产基地,那里的劳动力成本比较便宜。外国直接投资的降低会影响中国的经济增长和减少的就业潜力。另外,中国的内部工资变化可能会导致企业在中国境内搬迁到更便宜的地区,例如内陆二线城市。在主要城市,就业前景将下降,这会影响这一地区的经济。

中国仍在努力提高其在世界经济论坛的全球竞争力指数。在139 国家中,中国的全球竞争力指数在2010-2011年,排名第27位,去年同期为第29名。然而,在劳动力市场灵活性中,中国排第96位, 冗余成本为114名。在生产率的提高没有显著提高的情况下,较高的劳动力成本和工资将导致企业利润率下降

近年来推动经济增长的制造业可能因为缺乏投资而受到损害。因为企业在处理与大宗商品价格上涨的投入成本较高,同一时间劳动力成本增加。2010年,制造业占中国国内生产总值的30.0%,自2000年以来,这一比例保持相对稳定,但是,如果其他经济体采取更廉价的生产基地,这一比例可能会下降。出口也会受到影响。2010年,中国出口的商品包括机械交通运输设备占到49.2%。

然而,该国的经济转型可能鼓励企业生产较高的高端产品,而在亚洲其他地区采取低成本的制造业活动。高级技工、高素质的员工的短缺可能在短期阻碍高端产品的生产。但中国的劳动力成本仍比许多先进经济体低得多。

China’s labor costs

China’s economy in recent decades, rapid development thanks to the rapid development of its manufacturing as well as significant foreign direct investment (FDI). The cheap labor costs is an important factor in attracting investors. As costs continue to rise, the level of competitiveness in China pose a challenge. But along with the other advantages of growing, China is still very attractive to the investor countries.

China is one of the most attractive to investors, has always been its cheap labor costs and provide economies of scale. However, due to several factors, labor costs continue to rise. Beginning in 2008, this trend has become more apparent. 2008 the government introduced new labor laws, through the implementation of the contract, job security and minimum wage standards to comply with in order to protect the rights of workers. However, workers demanding higher wages because of inflation and other reasons. In such circumstances, the 2010 salary increases and increasing the minimum wage. The inflation caused by the purchasing power of consumers to reduce and lower disposable income. The annual inflation rate of 4.9 percent in February 2011, inflationary pressures in the 2011 record high world food prices and soaring oil prices continued to rise after the unrest of the Middle East and North Africa.

In addition, China has been troubled by lack of highly skilled workers, which contributed to the rise in wages. By the impact of a slowdown in the rural-urban migration and rural laborers find more close to home and work opportunities. As a result of the combination of these factors, the labor costs in China rise. Manufacturing average hourly wage, for example, in 2010 from $ 1.0 in 2005 to 2.4 U.S. dollars.

In the Asia-Pacific region, China has attracted the highest foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in 2008, before the financial crisis, reaching a maximum value of $ 108.3 billion. This accounted for 33.2 percent of foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Higher labor costs in China will produce what kind of impact?

Investors may seek alternatives to the production base in Asia, where labor costs are cheaper. Reduced foreign direct investment would affect China’s economic growth and reduce the potential for employment. In addition, China’s internal wage change may lead to enterprises in China to relocate to cheaper areas, such as the inland second-tier cities. In major cities, employment prospects will decline, and this will affect the economy of the region.

China is still trying to improve in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index. In 139 countries, China’s Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011, ranked 27, compared to 29. However, in the labor market flexibility, China ranks the first 96 redundancy costs for the 114. In case of increase in productivity did not significantly improve the high labor costs and wages will lead to decreased profit margins

In recent years to promote economic growth in the manufacturing sector may be compromised because of the lack of investment. Because of higher input costs in dealing with commodity prices rising at the same time labor costs increase. 2010, manufacturing accounted for 30.0 percent of China’s gross domestic product (GDP) since 2000, this proportion has remained relatively stable, but if other economies to take more low-cost production base, this proportion is likely to fall. Exports will be affected. In 2010, China’s exports of goods, including machinery and transport equipment accounted for 49.2%.

However, the transformation of the country’s economy may encourage higher production of high-end products to take low-cost manufacturing activity, while in other parts of Asia. Senior technicians, highly qualified staff shortages may hinder the production of high-end products in the short term. China’s labor costs are still much lower than many advanced economies.